Cleft Hand or Foot

3) Cleft Hand or Foot
Foot:(Lobster-claw Deformity) In this uncommon anomaly there is absence of one or more central digits, resulting from the failure of development of one or more digital rays. The hand or foot is split into two parts by a deepĀ· cleft produced by the absence of the third metacarpal (or metatarsal) and associated phalangeal bones. The 1 st & 2nd and 4th & 5th digits are par-
tially or completely fused. https://en.wikipedia.org:The two parts of the cleft hand (or foot) appose
each other and act like a lobster claw.
4) ‘Clubfoot
This malformation, also called talipes, is a deformity of the foot that involves the talus. It is a common anomaly, the incidence being 1 in 1000 births. The condition may be unilateral or bilateral and can usually be cor- rected by orthopedic treatment. The basic feature of the clubfoot deformity is an abnormal position of the foot due to which the child has to walk on ankle rather than on the sole of the foot. The different types of clubfoot are
named according to the position of the foot. Talipes calcaneovalgus is a type
of clubfoot in which the foot is dorsiflexed and everted. However, the most
common type of clubfoot is talipes equinovarus in which the foot is plan-
tar-flexed, inverted and adducted. This condition is more common in male
children.
It has been suggested that the clubfoot may result form uterine pre- ssure (especially in oligohydramnios), muscular anomalies and lesions of the
nervous system. Hereditary factors have also been claimed to be involved in some cases.

5) Congenital Dislocation of the Hip (CDH)

This is also a common congeni-
tal anomaly, occurring in about one of every 1500 newborn infants. CDH is
ten times more common in girls than in boys. In this anomaly the capsule of
the hip joint is abnormally relaxed at birth and there is underdevelopment of
the acetabulum of the hip bone and head of the femur. Dislocation usually takes place after birth. CDH is commonly observed in those babies who are breech deliveries (in a breech delivery the fetal buttocks. present first). This fact suggests that breech position during terminal months of pregnancy may interfere with normal development of the acetabulum and head of the femur.